'Inner character or quality revealed outwardly.'
'The Art and Science of discovering characteristic qualities of the mind, by the outward appearance, especially by the appearance of the face."
'The study of character analysis through physical features.'
- use of scientific findings and methods to investigate differences between races-often to support or validate racist attitudes and worldwide views.
- Based on the belief in the existence and significance of racial categories, typically with a hierarchy of superior and inferior races.
- Often used to support political or ideological positions of racial supremacy, e.g Propoganda in Nazi Germany.
- Classifications of humans into distinct biological races.
- Most widespread during the New Imperialism period in the second half of the 19th century.
- These theories often worked in conjunction with racism, e.g. in the case of 'human zoos,' in which human beings of various races were presented in cages during colonial exhibitions.
- Such theories and associated actions have been strongly denounced since WW2 and the Holocaust.
- Today, the phrase is either used as an accusation or to describe what critics consider to be historical race propoganda, alleging the existence of different races.